5.12.1. Features of a design
Fig. 5.15. Elements of system of cooling: 1 – the electrofan; 2 – an electrofan casing; 3, 34 – nuts; 4, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 36, 38, 39, 41, 43, 45 – collars; 5, 28, 46, 47, 50 – bolts; 6 – a bringing hose of heating of throttle knot; 8 – a tee; 11 – a bringing hose of a heater; 14 – перепускной a hose; 16 – a taking away hose of a heater; 19 – a taking away hose of heating of throttle knot; 21 – the thermostat case; 22 – a sealing ring of a cover of the thermostat; 23 – the thermostat; 24 – a branch pipe of the water pump; 26 – a taking away hose of the water pump; 29 – a connecting branch pipe; 31 – a liquid hose of a broad tank; 33 – a broad tank; 35 – a stopper of a broad tank; 37 – пароотводный a hose of a broad tank; 40 – a bringing hose of a radiator; 42 – a radiator; 44 – a taking away hose of a radiator; 48 – an arm of fastening of a radiator; 49 – the top pillow of fastening of a radiator; 51 – the bottom pillow of fastening of a radiator
System of cooling of the engine (fig. 5.15) liquid (with compulsory circulation of a liquid), tight, with a broad tank.
System fill with a liquid on a basis этиленгликоля (antifreeze), not freezing at an ambient temperature to–40 °С.
It is not recommended to fill system of cooling with water as the antifreeze structure includes anticorrosive and antimaking foam additives, and also the additives interfering adjournment of a scum.
The cooling liquid is toxic! Avoid inhalation of its steams and hit on a skin.
In due time eliminate infringement of tightness of system of cooling to avoid hit of steams of a cooling liquid in car salon at its operation. Your health is more expensive, than a new branch pipe of system of cooling or a hermetic tube!
Except a radiator, the water pump, a broad tank and hoses, the system includes the shirt of cooling of the engine executed in casting, surrounding walls of cylinders in the block, chambers of combustion and gas channels in a block head, and also a radiator of a heater of salon of the car.
The normal thermal mode of the engine is defined by temperature of a cooling liquid which is supported automatically by means of the thermostat in a range 90–100 °С.
with a horizontal stream of a liquid (fig. 5.16
), with a trubchato-tape aluminium core 3 and plastic tanks 2 and 6. In the bottom part of the left tank 2 there is a drain crane 1. In tanks bringing and taking away branch pipes of hoses to a water shirt of the engine and a branch pipe of the hose connecting a radiator with a broad tank are executed.
|Fig. 5.16. A radiator and electrofans of system of cooling: 1 – the drain crane; 2 – a taking away tank; 3 – a core; 4 – the basic electrofan; 5 – the additional electrofan; 6 – a taking away tank; 7 – a casing of the additional electrofan; 8 – a casing of the basic electrofan
The broad tank 33 (fig. 5.15 see) serves for indemnification of the changing volume of a cooling liquid depending on its temperature. The tank is made of translucent plastic. Labels are put on its walls «max» and «min» for the control of level of a cooling liquid, the bulk mouth tightly closed by a plastic stopper 35 with two valves in it (inlet and final), collected in the uniform block from above is located. The final valve opens at pressure 130–150 кПа (1,3–1,5 kgs/sm2), providing rise in temperature of the beginning of boiling of a cooling liquid and warning intensive steam formation. At liquid cooling its volume decreases and in system depression is created. The inlet valve in a stopper opens at depression nearby 3 кПа (0,03 kgs/sm2) and passes air in a broad tank.
Serviceability of valves of a stopper is very important for normal work of system of cooling, but is frequent at occurrence of problems (boiling of a cooling liquid etc.) motorists pay attention only for thermostat work, forgetting to check up valves. Негерметичность the final valve its jamming in the closed condition — to emergency increase of pressure in system that can cause damage of a radiator and hoses leads to decrease in temperature of boiling of a cooling liquid, and.
The water pump of centrifugal type provides compulsory circulation of a liquid in cooling system, is established on a forward plane of the block of cylinders and resulted in rotation by a gear belt of a drive газораспределительного the mechanism. The axis of rotation of a pulley of the pump is executed excentricly axes of its case that allows to regulate turn of the case round an axis a belt tension. In the pump the closed bearings which are not requiring replenishment of greasing are established. The pump is not subject to repair, therefore at refusal (the leak of a liquid or damage of bearings) replace it in gathering.
The thermostat 23 (fig. 5.15 see) with firm thermosensitive наполнителем maintains normal working temperature of a cooling liquid and reduces time of warming up of the engine. It is established in a special nest on a forward surface of the block of cylinders and pressed to it by the case 21. At temperature of a cooling liquid to 87 °С the thermostat completely is closed also a liquid circulates on a small contour, passing a radiator that accelerates engine warming up. At temperature 87 °С the thermostat starts to open, and at 102 °С opens completely, providing liquid circulation through a radiator.
4 (fig. 5.16
) with plastic семилопастной impeller
provides a purge of a radiator with air at small speeds of movement of the car basically in city conditions or on mountain roads when the counter stream of air is insufficient for radiator cooling.
For increase of an overall performance the fan through rubber pillows is established in a casing 8. The casing, in turn, is attached to a radiator in four points.
On the cars equipped with a central air, establish the additional electrofan 5 with пятилопастной impeller, attached to a radiator through a casing 7.
Work of the basic and additional electrofans the electronic block of a control system the engine, receiving the information from system gauges operates. The electronic block through corresponding relays provides rotation крыльчаток electrofans with two speeds. The block includes the basic fan with small speed of rotation at temperature of a cooling liquid 93 °С, with a great speed — at 97 °С, switches the fan from a great speed on small at 94 °С, switches off it at 90 °С. The block includes the additional fan with small speed when the conditioner is included, switches to a great speed at temperature of a cooling liquid 97 °С or on reaching pressure 1882 кПа in the forcing pipeline of the conditioner.
The radiator of a heater of salon is included in system of cooling by means of hoses 11 and 16 (fig. 5.15 see).