11.17.1. Features of the device
Fig. 11.2. The scheme of movement of air in the heating and air conditioning block: 1 – заслонка distributions of a stream of arriving air (a heater/having blown of glasses); 2 – top заслонка air distributions; 3 – the heater heat exchanger; 4 – заслонка a regulator of temperature of air; 5 – the heat exchanger of the evaporator of the conditioner; 6 – the fan electric motor (the electric drive of a supercharger); 7 – entrance заслонка; 8 – bottom заслонка air distributions; 9 – a conditioner air line; 10 – nozzles обдува a windscreen; 11 – a nozzle обдува lateral glasses; And – position заслонки for giving of air from salon; In – position заслонки for giving of external air
Management of system of heating and salon ventilation is carried out independently from air central air at performance of function of heating and ventilation of salon, removal of hoarfrost and the condensed moisture from a windscreen, обдува glasses of doors. At the same time heater basic elements work and at conditioner inclusion. Knots of a heater and the heat exchanger of the evaporator of the conditioner are in one block. The scheme of movement of air in the heating and air conditioning block is shown on fig. 11.2.
The basic knots of a heater:
– The heat exchanger of a heater (radiator) intended for heating of air arriving in salon by heat of a liquid cooling the engine;
– The fan with an electric drive (supercharger) providing adjustable giving of external air to заслонкам of a heater and the conditioner;
– заслонка a regulator of temperature of air arriving from a heater in salon, the quantity of air passing through the heat exchanger of a heater, and the external air which is passing bypassing the heat exchanger depends on change of its position;
– заслонки distributions of air arriving from a heater on air lines in salon or for обдува of a windscreen.
|Fig. 11.3. The Control panel heating and air-conditioning: 1 – a regulator of temperature of air arriving in salon; 2 – the switch of operating modes of the fan воздухонагнетателя; 3 – a regulator of distribution of streams of air; 4 – the switch of electroheating of glass of a window of a back; 5 – the mode switch рециркуляции; 6 – the conditioner switch
The switch of 2 modes of the fan воздухонагнетателя works irrespective of position of regulators of distribution of air and temperature and operates speed of the fan, changing pressure in an electric motor feed circuit.
The regulator of 3 distributions of streams of air, regulator of temperature and the mode switch рециркуляции operate заслонками a heater with the help тросового a drive.
Air central air operate the controls located on the panel, the general with a heater (fig. 11.3
Following elements enter into air central air.
The compressor with a belt drive from a pulley of a cranked shaft of the engine. A compressor pulley it is built in frictional electromagnetic муфта, disconnecting a shaft of the compressor from a pulley or connecting them at conditioner work on a signal of the electronic block of engine management. At work the compressor compresses to a high pressure of pair the coolant, arriving to it from the evaporator heat exchanger. Temperature of steams of a coolant on a compressor exit considerably above, than on an input.
The reduktsionnyj valve is built in the compressor and carries out protective function, working at increase in pressure of more admissible value at a compressor exit. Refusal of the valve of a high pressure, the electric fan can be the operation reason редукционного the valve, etc.
The heat exchanger (radiator) of the condenser located ahead of a radiator of system of cooling of the engine and having a coil with developed оребрением for fast cooling and condensation compressed compressor to a high pressure of steams of a coolant.
The throttle branch pipe (reducer) with mesh filters on an input and an exit is established in the pipeline bringing a liquid coolant to the heat exchanger of the evaporator. The throttle aperture in a branch pipe limits the expense of a liquid coolant and reduces pressure in the evaporator. After an engine stop the liquid coolant continues some time to flow through a throttle branch pipe from an elevated pressure zone in a zone of low pressure. Liquid course through a throttle aperture is accompanied by a characteristic hissing sound which is listened during 30–60 with the ambassador of a stop of the engine and does not testify to malfunction.
The heat exchanger (radiator) of the evaporator. The liquid coolant of the heat exchanger of the condenser through a throttle branch pipe arrives in the heat exchanger of the evaporator located in the block of a heater. In the heat exchanger the liquid passes in a gaseous state, absorbing heat. The moisture containing in air, arriving to the heat exchanger, is condensed on it, flows down from the evaporator and leaves from the heater block. From the evaporator heat exchanger the gaseous coolant with an impurity of a small amount of liquid fraction of a coolant and drops of refrigerating oil arrives in a receiver which is connected to the target pipeline of the evaporator.
Receiver-dehumidifier. In the bottom part of the case of a receiver there is a capacity with an absorber of steams of water from steams of a coolant which, being released from a moisture through a special aperture in an intaking tube, mix up with refrigerating oil. In the top part of the case of a receiver are located the union for joining of pipelines. A receiver неремонтопригоден to replace it it is necessary only in gathering.
Besides the listed elements, the system includes valves of high and low pressure, and also pressure gauges.
Fig. 11.4. The basic scheme of movement of a coolant in air central air: 1 – the conditioner compressor; 2 – the condenser heat exchanger; 3 – a throttle branch pipe (reducer); 4 – the evaporator heat exchanger; 5 – a receiver-dehumidifier; 6 – a moisture absorber in a receiver; 7 – an aperture for mixing of steams of a coolant with refrigerating oil; 8 – редукционный the valve in the compressor; And – a liquid coolant under a high pressure; In – a liquid coolant under low pressure; With – a gaseous coolant under a high pressure; D – a gaseous coolant under low pressure
The basic scheme of movement of a coolant in air central air is resulted on fig. 11.4.
All works on central air repair should be carried out only at completely discharged system.
As coolant steams are toxic, repair system with use of the special equipment which is available in specialised services on service of central airs.
In connection with specific features of repair of a central air (the prevention above see) in the given subsection works on removal and installation of the block of management by a central air and heating as for removal of other elements of knot of heating and air-conditioning (including a heater radiator) full removal of knot from the car from central air depressurization is required are described only.