15.1. How to make the car ready for the winter
The serviceable car does not demand "winter" preparation. For operation in northern areas of the country and big cities it is possible to recommend only to spend a number of kontrolno-verifying actions and special additional preparation to exclude accidents. Additional preparation, first of all, includes off-schedule maintenance service; it can be facilitated considerably, applying modern means of auto chemical goods and special operational materials.
The great value at winter operation of the car has serviceability of the storage battery. If "age" of the storage battery established on the car makes 2–3 years on the threshold of winter it needs to be washed up outside, to clear plugs and completely to charge (if the car was constantly maintained in a city, the battery charge is far from nominal).
If the storage battery is not charged to nominal capacity it is necessary to replace it.
By estimations of experts, average duration of "a high-grade life» storage battery makes about 3 years.
To buy the storage battery now does not make a problem: in shops the considerable quantity of trade marks and models is presented. What battery to choose — the private affair of everyone. It is necessary to notice that in the market now it is possible to allocate two price groups: batteries in cost over $60 (usually to $100), for example Bosch, Steco, American, Fiamm, and under the price below $60 (Mutlu, Inci, Centra, SAEM etc.).
Higher prices of batteries of the first group are caused by more perfect technology of their manufacture. These accumulators, as a rule, concern a category of the unattended. Special types of electrolits and tight execution of such batteries increase their resource and provide high стартерные the currents guaranteeing проворачивание of a cranked shaft of the engine even at strong frosts. Leading manufacturers now without fail use technology of packing of plates therefore it is possible to avoid short circuit of the battery in case of their destruction.
Cheaper accumulators demand the periodic service consisting in check of density of electrolit and measurement of its level.
At a choice of the storage battery pay attention to following parametres:
– Capacity, А·ч. According to the maintenance instruction it should be 55 А·ч. It is supposed to apply batteries in capacity 45–60 А·ч. Too small capacity will create problems with "winter" start-up of the engine, at too big — the generator will not provide full gymnastics of the accumulator and its service life will strongly be reduced;
– A current стартерного the category, And (under standard DIN 43 539). The more its value, the better, especially at winter operation. It is a guarantee of that the starter will turn a cranked shaft with enough high frequency of rotation and if the engine is not started up from the first attempt, you will have a chance to make the second and the third.
Do not get storage batteries of the southern countries-manufacturers: frosts there there is no also a current стартерного the category at them can be essential less, than at the accumulators adapted for conditions of Russian winter.
At purchase of the battery different from regular, pay attention for its size and an arrangement of plugs: buy the accumulator of the same polarity, as old, differently wires of your car can not reach plugs.
The electrolit density of completely charged accumulator room of the battery can differ from nominal no more than on 0,02 g/sm3 (tab. 15.1).
Table 15.1 the Temperature amendment to indications ареометра at measurement of density of electrolit
Most precisely degree заряженности the storage battery on electrolit density can be defined, measuring it at temperature of +25 wasps (tab. 15.2).
Table 15.2 electrolit Density at temperature 25 °С, g/sm3
At check of the accumulator by a special loading plug of the indication of the built in voltmeter should be 12,5–12,9 In at the disconnected loading and not to decrease more low 11 In at loading during 10 with. Such battery will long serve and reliably.
If the accumulator nevertheless have discharged at unsuccessful start-up of the engine, it is possible to take advantage of cables for «прикуривания» with contact clips of type "crocodile". At purchase it is better to choose the cables calculated on the big loading (from 200).
Use of less viscous winter engine oil essentially facilitates start-up of the cold engine. The international classification SAE J300 contains six classes of winter oils. In a designation of "winter" classes there is letter W (winter — winter).
In the conditions of a temperate climate is admissible to apply in the winter the all-weather (universal) engine oils which have received now a wide circulation (tab. 15.3).
At purchase of oils, especially import, it is necessary to be careful of fakes, therefore is better to get oils in the specialised shops giving certificates on the goods.
Table 15.3 of the Characteristic of winter oils
Remember that at intensive city driving oil replacement (and accordingly the oil filter) should be spent in strict conformity with the factory maintenance instruction of the car, reducing periodicity of replacement by 20 % each 50 thousand in km of run, since 100 thousand in km. Greasing system wash out at transition to oil of other mark. The various "boilers" which ostensibly are warming up thickened oil in картере, do not give any practical effect, except premature failure of the accumulator.
In system of cooling of the engine of your car it is applied special низкозамерзающая a liquid — antifreeze (a water solution of spirit, glycol, glycerine and inorganic salts with addition of special additives).
To apply water in system of cooling it is strictly forbidden in the winter. This results from the fact that at inclusion of the fan of a heater on a total power water circulation through a radiator can stop absolutely and water in a radiator will freeze directly during movement. At a stop of the car of circulation through a radiator there will be no also a motor "will begin to boil". Besides at long work of system of cooling on water in places of strong heating the scum which badly spends heat is formed. The scum formed in system of cooling in one place, narrows section of channels through passage, and in other place owing to corrosion, on the contrary, increases them is it breaks uniformity of a heat transfer, causes local overheats and can lead to deformation of a head of the block of cylinders.
Quite often the power supply system is at the bottom of unsatisfactory work of the engine during winter time. And all because of the water condensate which has accumulated in a fuel tank. Almost all leading manufacturers of auto chemical goods (STP, Loctite, Wynns, Aspokem) offer the preparations which are filled in in a fuel tank. They gradually clear the power supply system. With the superfluous will not replace the filter of thin clearing of fuel and to be convinced of cleanliness and serviceability of atomizers of the engine.
Before approach of winter do not forget about high-voltage wires. After driving couple of years on the roads processed противогололедными by reagents, it is desirable to replace them, is better on wires with a silicone cover which are less sensitive to temperature drops. Besides, on them hoarfrost which often happens the reason of absence of a spark is not formed. Corrosion or a bad inhaling of plugs of the storage battery can be the banal reason of malfunctions in ignition system.
The maintenance instruction orders to replace spark plugs through each 10 thousand in km. But, considering experience of carrying out of repair work, it is better to do it through 5 thousand in km or more often if the car is very tensely maintained in a big city or on gasoline of doubtful quality. It is better to apply spark plugs of import manufacturers, such as NGK, Champion and others supposed to application in the engine of your car.
During the winter period of operation of the car the body as much as possible is exposed to corrosion, therefore its anticorrosive processing is rather desirable. However, according to employees of some authorised servicing deports, for a number of new foreign cars, especially with the zinced body, it is quite enough factory processing.
Anticorrosive processing demands technology strict observance, and though almost all manufacturers of protective materials let out them in packing for household application, all the same it is more preferable to spend processing in the specialised service centre. It is necessary to find out in advance, on what technology it is carried out. In any case before sheeting drawing on the bottom and arches the car should be cleared of a dirt, is washed up and dried carefully up.
Winter operation, especially in "the salted" streets of cities, repeatedly strengthens corrosion of details of a body. The regular sink is necessary in the winter, if the car is stored in the street, and is categorically necessary daily if the car is stored in warm garage. Water well washes off salt, and the layer of a wet dirt very long dries, strengthening fatal influence of salt on a paint and varnish covering of a body. As a last resort wash the car in thaw is more often, and before a cold snap wash up and rub off dry, in an ideal — dry in a warm premise. Before the beginning of winter operation necessarily spend additional anticorrosive processing of a body. Such processing is better to spend in specialised car-care centre with application of special protective means and technologies. Anticorrosive processing happens two kinds: processing of the bottom and the latent cavities of a body and processing of a paint and varnish covering of a body. Last can be executed without effort independently. It includes a sink, drying and processing by special protective structures on the basis of, as a rule, wax or silicone. If at processing of a body you find out deep scratches, process the bared metal the converter of a rust (modifier).
Additional plastic подкрылки reduce abrasive deterioration of an anticorrosive covering on an inside of wings, but at their not qualified installation badly aired cavities between a wing and подкрылком in which because of a getting moisture there will be additional centres of corrosion can be formed.
The correct choice of tyres for operation during the winter period of time allows to raise safety of traffic. Car operation during the winter period on summer tyres is extremely dangerous and consequently is inadmissible. The tyres intended for operation during the winter period of time, on protector drawing it is possible to divide into the European type (protector drawing consists of separate draughts or the draughts connected in an edge) and the Scandinavian type (drawing of a protector of the tyre with the big distance between small draughts that allows to clear a stain of contact of friable snow).
At car operation during the winter period in the conditions of a city where on roads there is a snezhno-hydrochloric porridge more often, than the stamped snow or ice, is better to use winter tyres without thorns: they easier also have smaller in comparison with шипованными tyres resistance качению.
It is necessary to know that tyres without thorns hold ice-covered road is worse, but on wet asphalt on length of a brake way have conclusive advantages in comparison with шипованными tyres.
If you apply шипованные tyres, change them necessarily in the complete set, instead of be limited with a view of economy only to forward pair wheels as it sharply raises probability of failure in drift of the front-wheel car.
Do not forget that according to requirements ПДД at use шипованных tyres it is necessary to place on back glass a triangular sign with the letter «Ш» to warn other drivers.
On the threshold of winter it is necessary to check up screen wipers, having blown and heating of glasses — they should be serviceable.
The faulty brushes of a screen wiper leaving on glass matte strips, reduce not only comfortableness of a trip, but also safety of the driver. Getting screen wiper brushes, try to choose the brushes recommended by manufacturer and meeting following requirements:
– Qualitatively and in regular intervals clear of a various kind of pollution all covered surface of a windscreen and glass of a door of a back;
– Possess sufficient wear resistance;
– At work of brushes on a glass surface should not remain scratches.
In the conditions of winter operation of the car it is possible to get special brushes, hinges and коромысла which are protected from an icing by a rubber cover.
With a view of the prevention of loss of mobility of hinges of brushes of a screen wiper during the winter period of time it is not recommended to dilute with water a nonfreezing liquid of a screen wiper as brushes are cooled much faster, than the windscreen, and the water which has got on them can freeze.
Regularly it is necessary to wash off water a dirt and sand from hinges of brushes of a screen wiper.
In order to avoid excessive deterioration of tapes of brushes it is not necessary to include in the winter a screen wiper until the heater will not warm all glass and will not kindle on it наледь.
By preparation of the car for operation during the winter period of time it is necessary to examine a windscreen attentively. In the first frost after an autumn rain even small скол on a windscreen will turn to a high-grade crack. Existing technologies of repair allow to eliminate similar defect without glass removal. It is easier and cheaper, than replacement has flown down.
One more "winter" problem — запотевание glasses. At serviceable system of ventilation arises seldom, however we advise you пробрести special liquids-antizapotevateli which it is enough to put on glass of times in a week.