5.1. Features of a design
Fig. 5.1. The engine 1,5 L (SOHC)
On cars Chevrolet/Daewoo Lanos establish cross-section located four-cylinder four-cycle petrol engine of fashions. 1,5 L (SOHC) in working volume 1,5 l, with рядным a vertical arrangement of cylinders and liquid cooling. The general design of the engine is shown on fig. 5.1, and separate details and knots — on fig. 5.2.
Fig. 5.2. Details and knots of the engine 1,5 L (SOHC): 1, 2, 4, 9, 25, 29, 32, 57, 70, 73, 77, 84, 86, 95, 96, 98, 103, 106, 122 – bolts; 3 – the bottom cover of a drive газораспределительного the mechanism; 5, 30, 58, 75, 85, 94 – washers; 6 – a forward cover of a drive газораспределительного the mechanism; 7 – a drive belt газораспределительного the mechanism; 8 – a gear pulley of a camshaft; 10 – a back cover of a drive газораспределительного the mechanism; 11, 81 – шпонки; 12 – a camshaft; 13 – a camshaft epiploon; 14 – the valve of system of ventilation картера the engine; 15 – a lining of a cover of a head of the block of cylinders; 16 – a valve lining рециркуляции the fulfilled gases; 17 – a lining of an inlet pipe; 18, 59 – nuts; 19 – throttle knot; 20 – a lining of throttle knot; 21 – an inlet pipe; 22 – a vacuum hose of system рециркуляции the fulfilled gases; 23 – the system valve рециркуляции the fulfilled gases; 24 – a transport eye; 26 – a cover of a head of the block of cylinders; 27 – a stopper маслоналивной mouths; 28 – a stopper lining маслоналивной mouths; 31 – a persistent flange of a camshaft; 33 – a head of the block of cylinders; 34 – press the lever of a drive of the valve; 35 – hydrojacks of backlashes in a drive of valves; 36 – directing crackers of press levers of a drive of valves; 37 – запорные crackers of springs of valves; 38 – the top plates of springs of valves; 39 – springs of valves; 40 – маслосъемные caps; 41 – the mechanism проворачивания the final valve; 42 – directing plugs of valves; 43 – the final valve; 44 – the inlet valve; 45 – the bottom plate of a spring of the inlet valve; 46 – перепускной the valve of system of greasing; 47 – заглушка; 48 – the gauge of temperature of a cooling liquid of a control system of the engine; 49 – a hairpin of fastening of a final collector; 50 – a lining of a final collector; 51 – a final collector; 52 – top компрессионное a ring; 53 – bottom компрессионное a ring; 54 – the top disk маслосъемного rings; 55 – a dilator маслосъемного rings; 56 – the bottom disk маслосъемного rings; 60 – the thermoscreen of a final collector; 61 – the index (щуп) oil level; 62 – a directing tube of the index of level of oil; 63, 64, 83 – adjusting plugs; 65 – заглушка a water shirt of the block of cylinders; 66 – the union of the oil filter; 67 – the oil filter; 68 – the plug; 69 – a plug stopper; 71 – a flywheel; 72 – a back epiploon of a cranked shaft; 74 – a stopper of an aperture for oil plum; 75 – a sealing ring of a stopper of an aperture for oil plum; 76 – oil картер; 78 – covers of radical bearings of a cranked shaft; 79 – the bottom loose leaves of radical bearings of a cranked shaft; 80 – a cranked shaft; 82 – the top loose leaves of radical bearings of a cranked shaft; 87 – маслоприемник; 88 – a stopper редукционного the valve; 89 – a sealing ring of a stopper редукционного the valve; 90 – a spring редукционного the valve; 91 – плунжер редукционного the valve; 92 – a safety valve; 93 – a pulley of a drive of auxiliary units; 97 – a tension roller of a belt of a drive газораспределительного the mechanism; 99 – a gear pulley of a cranked shaft; 100 – a forward epiploon of a cranked shaft; 101 – the gauge of an alarm lamp of emergency pressure drop of oil (if it is established); 102 – a sealing ring of the gauge of an alarm lamp of emergency pressure drop of oil; 104 – the oil pump; 105 – a stopper-zaglushka; 107 – a branch pipe of system of ventilation картера; 108 – the water pump; 109 – a sealing ring of the water pump; 110 – a lining of the oil pump; 111 – a branch pipe of system of cooling; 112 – the block of cylinders; 113 – a rod cover; 114 – the bottom loose leaf шатунного the bearing of a cranked shaft; 115 – the top loose leaf шатунного the bearing of a cranked shaft; 116 – a rod; 117 – a piston finger; 118 – the piston; 119 – a lining of a head of the block of cylinders; 120 – a head of the block of cylinders; 121 – a thermostat cover; 123 – a sealing ring of the thermostat; 124 – the thermostat
The engine capacity with the top arrangement of one five-basic camshaft has of 63 kw (86 h.p.) on two valves on each cylinder. The camshaft is resulted in rotation by the reinforced gear belt, backlashes in a drive of valves are eliminated by the hydrojacks connected by channels with system of greasing.
The head of the block of cylinders is made of an aluminium alloy under the cross-section scheme of a purge of cylinders (inlet and final channels are located on head opposite sides). In a block head запрессованы saddles and directing plugs of valves. Inlet and final valves have on one spring fixed through a plate by two crackers. Valves are set in motion by a camshaft through the levers, leaning one shoulder on screwed in a head of the block of cylinders hydrojacks, and another — on established on the top end faces of valves directing.
The block of cylinders represents the uniform casting forming cylinders, a cooling shirt, the top part картера and five support of the cranked shaft, executed in the form of partitions картера. The block is made of special high-strength pig-iron with the cylinders chiseled directly in a body of the block. The covers of radical bearings processed in gathering with the block, невзаимозаменяемы. On the block of cylinders special inflow, flanges and apertures for fastening of details, knots and units, and also channels of the main oil highway are executed.
The cranked shaft forged from a special steel, rotates in the radical bearings having thin-walled steel loose leaves with an antifrictional layer from an aljuminievo-tin alloy. Axial moving of a cranked shaft is limited to the special flanges executed on an average radical neck and leaning against fillets of loose leaves increased on a thickness of the average radical bearing.
Pistons are made of an aluminium alloy. For reduction of pressure of the piston by a wall of the cylinder during a working course the axis of apertures under a piston finger is displaced on 0,7 mm from an axis of symmetry of the piston in the right party. On a cylindrical surface of a head of the piston ring flutes for two компрессионных and one маслосъемного rings are executed, and the last consists of three sections.
Piston fingers are established in lugs of pistons with a backlash and запрессованы with a tightness in the top heads of rods. Rods are connected by the bottom heads with шатунными necks of a cranked shaft through the thin-walled loose leaves which design is similar to the radical.
Rods steel, shod, with a core двутаврового sections.
The ventilation system картера the closed type is not informed directly with atmosphere, therefore simultaneously with отсосом gases and gasoline steams in картере depression at all power setting that raises reliability of various consolidations of the engine is formed and reduces emission of toxic substances in atmosphere. The ventilation system includes the valve established in a cover of a head of the block of cylinders, a hose of the big branch of the system, connecting a cavity under a cover of a head of the block with воздухоподводящим a sleeve, and the hose of a small branch connecting system of ventilation with an inlet pipe.
Under the influence of depression in an inlet pipe картерные gases on the channel in the block of cylinders of the engine and to a ventilating hose are sucked in in a cavity under a cover of a head of the block of cylinders, whence through the valve and a hose of the big branch arrive in воздухоподводящий a sleeve where mix up with air submitted to the engine, and then through throttle knot — in an inlet pipe of the engine. The formed gas mix together with fuel arrives in cylinders of the engine and there burns down.
In certain cases, for example at strong deterioration цилиндропоршневой groups or long work of the engine with high loading, throughput of system of ventilation appears insufficient. In this case the part картерных gases is taken away on a small branch in an inlet pipe, whence moves in cylinders of the engine for burning. Besides the small branch works and on an idling mode at completely closed throttle заслонке.
System basic element is the valve. At completely open throttle заслонке when depression in an inlet pipe is insignificant, the valve is completely open under the influence of the spring built in it and картерные gases freely pass in воздухоподводящий a sleeve. At closed throttle заслонке (an idling mode) depression in an inlet pipe increases, section of the valve through passage decreases, receipt картерных gases in a sleeve is limited and steady work of the engine in an idling mode is provided.
The system of cooling of engines tight, with a broad tank, consists of the shirt of cooling executed in moulding and surrounding cylinders in the block, the chamber of combustion and gas channels in a head of the block of cylinders. Compulsory circulation of a cooling liquid is provided with the centrifugal water pump with a drive from a cranked shaft a gear belt of a drive газораспределительного the mechanism. For maintenance of normal working temperature of a cooling liquid in cooling system the thermostat blocking the big circle of system at not heated-up engine and low temperature of the cooling liquid is established.
The power supply system consists of a fuel tank, the electric fuel pump established in a fuel tank, throttle knot, the filter of thin clearing of fuel, a regulator of pressure of fuel, atomizers and топливопроводов, and also includes the air filter.
The ignition system microprocessor, consists of the coil of ignition, high-voltage wires and spark plugs. The ignition coil the electronic block of a control system operates the engine. The ignition system at operation does not demand service and adjustment.
The power unit (the engine with a transmission, coupling and the main transfer) is established on three support with elastic rubber elements: two lobbies (left and right), perceiving a great bulk of the power unit, and back, compensating a twisting moment from transmission and the loadings arising at трогании of the car from a place, dispersal and braking.
At known skill and attentiveness many malfunctions of the engine and its systems can be defined precisely enough on colour of the smoke leaving an exhaust pipe. The dark blue smoke testifies to oil hit in combustion chambers, and constant дымление — a sign of strong deterioration of details цилиндропоршневой groups. Smoke occurrence at перегазовках, after long прокручивания a starter, long work idling or right after specifies braking by the engine, as a rule, in deterioration маслосъемных caps of valves. A black smoke — too rich mix because of malfunction of a control system of the engine or atomizers. The grey or dense white smoke with a moisture impurity (especially after an engine overheat) means that the cooling liquid has got to the combustion chamber through the damaged lining of a head of the block of cylinders. At strong damage of this lining the liquid sometimes gets and in oil картер, oil level sharply raises, and oil turns in muddy whitish эмульсию. A white smoke (steam) at not heated-up engine in damp or in cold weather — the normal phenomenon.
Often enough it is possible to see the car standing in the middle of a city stopper with the open cowl, letting out steam clubs. An overheat. Better, of course, it not to suppose, glancing at the temperature index more often. But nobody is insured that the thermostat can unexpectedly refuse, the electrofan or will simply begin to flow a cooling liquid. If you have missed the overheat moment, do not panic and do not aggravate a situation. Not so the overheat, as its possible consequences is terrible. Never at once suppress the engine — it will receive a heatstroke and, probably, having cooled down, in general will refuse to be got. Having stopped, allow to it to work on single turns, thus in system liquid circulation will remain. Include on the maximum capacity a heater and open a cowl. If there is a possibility, water a radiator with cold water. Only having achieved temperature decrease, stop the engine. But never at once open a stopper of a broad tank: On перегретом the engine the geyser from under an open stopper is provided. Do not hasten, allow to all to cool down, and you keep health of the car and your own health.
Practically in all instructions to the car the recommendation contains at engine start-up necessarily to squeeze out coupling. This recommendation is justified only in case of start-up in a strong frost not to spend energy of the storage battery on проворачивание shaft and transmission gear wheels in the thickened oil. In other cases it simply recommendation that the car has not got under way from a place if on forgetfulness transfer is included. This reception is harmful to the engine as at the squeezed out coupling through it the considerable effort is transferred to the persistent bearing of a cranked shaft, and at start-up (especially cold) greasing to it long does not arrive. The bearing quickly wears out, the cranked shaft receives axial люфт, and трогание from a place starts to be accompanied by strong vibration. Not to spoil the engine, take in habit to check before start-up position of the lever of a gear change and to start up the engine at the tightened manual brake, without squeezing out coupling without emergency.